Create ISO from USB drive


dd

https://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=1043014

You can use dd for this. In the example commands below, I'm assuming your USB device is recognized by the system as /dev/sdb. You should make sure that this is the case before executing any of the commands below, because if you get the device name wrong, the second command below will end up overwriting the wrong device and destroying your data.

To make an image from your existing USB setup and write it to the file usb-image.iso:

Code:
sudo dd if=/dev/sdb of=usb-image.iso
You could now remove your current USB device and connect an empty device, which the system should again see as /dev/sdb. To copy the usb-image.iso file onto the new device:

Code:
sudo dd if=usb-image.iso of=/dev/sdb
Again it is EXTREMELY IMPORTANT that you make sure you're using the correct device name before executing the command above. Otherwise you run the risk of clobbering the data on some other disk device that may be critical to your system.


If you use if=/dev/sdb1 instead of if=/dev/sdb, then you will create an image of the partition. If you have a larger USB drive, you can simply create a correctly sized partition on that drive and then copy your image to just that partition using the partition's device name as the of= parameter, as in of=/dev/sdb1.



gnome-disk-utility (Disks)



https://askubuntu.com/questions/240803/convert-bootable-usb-to-iso-file

Another option is to use gnome-disk-utility.

You can start if from a terminal with gnome-disks or look for the application Disks in the Dash.

Once the USB stick is mounted, select it and use the more actions icon to choose Create Image.

Disks is a GUI for the same command.




Shrinking images on Linux

https://softwarebakery.com/shrinking-images-on-linux

by FrozenCow

When creating images from existing ISOs you often need to allocate a number of MB for the image to at least fit the files that are in the ISO. Predicting the exact size of the image is hard, even for a program. In this case you will create an image that is larger than actually needed: the image is much larger than the files on the image are combined.

This post will show how to shrink an existing image to a more optimal size. We will do this on Linux, since all required tools are available there: GParted, fdisk and truncate.

Requirements

Creating loopback device

GParted is a great application that can handle partition tables and filesystems quite well. In this tutorial we will use GParted to shrink the filesystem (and its accompaning partition in the partition table).

GParted operates on devices, not simple files like images. This is why we first need to create a device for the image. We do this using the loopback-functionality of Linux.

First we will enable loopback if it wasn't already enabled:

$ sudo modprobe loop

Now we can request a new (free) loopback device:

$ sudo losetup -f

This will return the path to a free loopback device. In this example this is /dev/loop0.

Next we create a device of the image:

$ sudo losetup /dev/loop0 myimage.img

Now we have a device /dev/loop0 that represents myimage.img. We want to access the partitions that are on the image, so we need to ask the kernel to load those too:

$ sudo partprobe /dev/loop0

This should give us the device /dev/loop0p1, which represents the first partition in myimage.img. We do not need this device directly, but GParted requires it.

Resize partition using GParted

Next we can load the device using GParted:

$ sudo gparted /dev/loop0
We want to resize this partition so that is fits it content, but not more than that.

Select the partition and click Resize/Move.

Drag the right bar to the left as much as possible.

Note that sometimes GParted will need a few MB extra to place some filesystem-related data. You can press the up-arrow at the New size-box a few times to do so. For example, I pressed it 10 times (=10MiB) for FAT32 to work. For NTFS you might not need to at all.

Finally press Resize/Move. You will return to the GParted window.

Notice that there is a part of the disk unallocated. This part of the disk will not be used by the partition, so we can shave this part off of the image later. GParted is a tool for disks, so it doesn't shrink images, only partitions, we have to do the shrinking of the image ourselves.

Press Apply in GParted. It will now move files and finally shrink the partition, so it can take a minute or two, most of the time it finishes quickly. Afterwards close GParted.

Now we don't need the loopback-device anymore, so unload it:

$ sudo losetup -d /dev/loop0

Shaving the image

Now that we have all the important data at the beginning of the image it is time to shave of that unallocated part. We will first need to know where our partition ends and where the unallocated part begins. We do this using fdisk:

$ fdisk -l myimage.img

Here we will see an output similar to the following:

Disk myimage.img: 6144 MB, 6144000000 bytes, 12000000 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000ea37d

      Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
myimage.img1            2048     9181183     4589568    b  W95 FAT32

Note two things in the output:

We will use these numbers in the rest of the example. The block-size (512) is often the same, but the ending block (9181183) will differ for you. The numbers mean that the parition ends on byte 9181183*512 of the file. After that byte comes the unallocated-part. Only the first 9181183*512 bytes will be useful for our image.

Next we shrink the image-file to a size that can just contain the partition. For this we will use the truncate command (thanks uggla!). With the truncate command need to supply the size of the file in bytes. The last block was 9181183 and block-numbers start at 0. That means we need (9181183+1)*512 bytes. This is important, else the partition will not fit the image. So now we use truncate with the calculations:

$ truncate --size=$[(9181183+1)*512] myimage.img

Now copy the new image over to your phone, where it should act exactly the same as the old/big image.




How to resize img file created with dd

https://superuser.com/questions/610819/how-to-resize-img-file-created-with-dd


First make sure the free space is actually empty, and doesn't contain leftovers of deleted files. The easiest way to achieve this is to create a huge file on the disk, containing only null bytes, then delete it.

# losetup --find --partscan foo.img
# lsblk
NAME      MAJ:MIN RM    SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
loop0       7:0    0   4096M  0 loop 
├─loop0p1 259:0    0   2048M  0 loop 
└─loop0p2 259:1    0   2048M  0 loop 
# for part in /dev/loop0p*; do
    mount $part /mnt
    dd if=/dev/zero of=/mnt/filler conv=fsync bs=1M
    rm /mnt/filler
    umount /mnt
  done
dd: error writing ‘/mnt/filler’: No space left on device
dd: error writing ‘/mnt/filler’: No space left on device
# losetup --detach /dev/loop0

Then compress it with a tool like gzip or xz. Even at lowest compression levels, a long series of zeros will compress well:

# ls -s
4096M foo.img
# gzip foo.img
# ls -s
11M foo.img.gz

Note that you must uncompress the image when writing it back to disk. This will uncompress it 'live':

# cat foo.img.gz | gunzip | dd of=/dev/sda

Note that the output device (sda) must be of sufficient size to fit the original image, otherwise data will be lost or corrupted.




Using resize2fs is much much easier
resize2fs -M xxx.img

you will be asked to e2fsck first - so:

e2fsck -f -y xxx.img

(image must NOT be mounted!)

Note: this will only work if the image is of a single partition, if it's a whole block device with mutiple partitions see above answer...